When I worked with my son's dog, there was never any force. She could come lie by me on the couch and work a little on conditioning (and get ice cream. lol) OR.....she could go away if she chose to. The choice was hers. I made staying by me, working in very small increments more reinforcing (Neopolitan ice cream) than going away to the other side of the room. I don't ever train anything with any kind of force. It is much more long lasting and effective to set the dog up so he'll choose to do what I want him to do. It can risk eroding a dog's trust if you force him to do something he finds unpleasant or scary. It might not show up to you, but underneath, many dogs aren't as trusting as people think they are and then you hear...."he bit out of the blue..." He may suppress any kind of response such as biting for the time being, but often will hold it down and then "out of the blue"......he bites. Force is never recommended in conditioning a dog to something he fears or doesn't like. A slow, counter conditioning and desensitizing sets up a better foundation that will build more confidence in the dog about doing scary things or having scary things done to him. You might luck out with a handful of dogs but generally, it's not a good behavioral modification practice to use force and flooding or intimidation type techniques on animals. (from an animal behavior standpoint)
"If you love wealth better than liberty, the tranquility of servitude better than the animating contest of freedom, go home from us in peace. We ask not your counsels or arms. Crouch down and lick the hands which feed you. May your chains set lightly upon you and may posterity forget that ye were our countrymen." -- Samuel Adams 1776
"When the people fear their government, there is tyranny; when the government fears the people, there is liberty."