Originally Posted by corgipower
No, I can't diagnose fear over the internet. I can tell you that hitting creates fear. Period. I don't need to see the dog to know that.
Not exactly. Some dogs enjoy being hit, especially during play times.
Aversive punishment techniques create fear. Hurting a dog - physically, emotionally, etc. - in such a way that it teaches the dog to not do a behavior will probably create fear in the dog.
That said, after what, 13 pages? of this conversation, I'm increasingly convinced that this dog is not punished at all by being popped on the nose. At best the pop gets the dog's attention, at worst the dog just ignores it altogether.
Which would also explain why the owner has allegedly never seen any sort of adverse reactions to this technique. And also why the owner continues to "have" to use it to get the behavior she wants from the dog.